NICE guideline. Asthma: diagnosis, monitoring and chronic asthma management. NICE guideline.
Available data for diagnosing and following asthma in children by commonly used non-invasive biomarkers
Peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurement
https://www.guidelines.co.uk/download?ac=6521. Algorithm for the diagnosis of asthma in children. Assesed 01_2022.
|Total Resistance (RS)||Central Resistance (R20)||Peripheral Reactance (X5) (∗)||AUC Reactance (AX)|
Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO)
- Elliott M.
- Heltshe S.L.
- Stamey D.C.
- Cochrane E.S.
- Redding G.J.
- Debley J.S.
Allergy assessment: SPTs, sIgE, eosinophils, ISAAC, alex test
- Steering Committee A.
- Review Panel M.
Emerging biomarkers of asthma in pediatrics
Potential soluble biomarkers
Exhaled breath condensate
New – upcoming (omics, breath biopsy)
Biomarkers use in diagnosing and monitoring asthma during the COVID-19 pandemic
Cost and availability in different settings/developing countries
|Fractional exhaled Nitric Oxide||35||20||10.8||N/A (research only)||22||N/A (research only)||N/A (research only)||50|
|Peak Flow Measurement||N/A||5||N/A||N/A||N/A||3||No charge||N/A|
|Impulse Oscilometry||12 000 (the whole equipment)||15||11.5||N/A||10||N/A||5||N/A|
|Bronchial Provocation Test||$880 when billed to insurance companies; cost to the patient varies||35||15.4||N/A||20||N/A||N/A (research only)||N/A (research only)|
|Specific IgE (10 allergens)||400||120||84.6||30||80||250||25||250|
|Skin Prick Test (10 allergens)||50||20||12.3||N/A||10||30||6||100|
|ImmunoCAP ISAC Test||400||350||N/A||N/A||120||N/A||N/A||695|
|Sputum eosinophils||N/A||5||1.2||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A (research only)||N/A|
|Exhaled Breathe Condensate||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A|
Differences in the use of biomarkers for monitoring pediatric asthmatic patients between Primary Practitioners, Pediatricians, and Specialists
Natural history/patterns: assessing the longitudinal aspect
- Xepapadaki P.
- Kostoudi S.
- Tzeli K.
- Kitsioulis N.
- Papadopoulos N.G.
Consent for publication
Availability of data and materials
Declaration of competing interest
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