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Have the prevalence of eczema symptoms increased in the Mexican pediatric population? Prevalence and associated factors according to Global Asthma Network Phase I

Open AccessPublished:October 16, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.waojou.2022.100710

      Abstract

      Background

      In children, atopic dermatitis or eczema is the most common inflammatory disease of the skin. According to the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase IIIB in Mexico, 5.8% of children and 4.9% of adolescents had eczema symptoms. In 2012, Global Asthma Network (GAN) was established to update the prevalence of eczema and estimate potential factors contributing to its development.

      Objective

      To estimate the prevalence and associated factors for atopic eczema symptoms and diagnosis in children and adolescents according to GAN Phase I and compare the results with ISAAC Phase IIIB in Mexico.

      Methods

      A cross-sectional, multicenter survey was conducted in 15 Mexican centers during the period of 2015–2017 using the GAN Phase I questionnaires in children (6–7-year-olds) and adolescents (13–14-year-olds). The prevalences obtained from the GAN Phase I study, were compared with ISAAC Phase IIIB results; a Spearman's correlation analysis was conducted between temperature, relative humidity, and altitude and eczema symptoms, and a logistic regression was performed to predict current eczema symptoms by age group.

      Results

      A total of 35 777 children and 41 399 adolescents were included. Since ISAAC Phase IIIB, the prevalence of itchy rash in the past 12 months significantly increased in the children's group [6.6% (95% CI 5.7–7.4) vs 7.8 (95% CI 7.5–8.1), p = 0.000] and adolescents' group [5.8% (95% CI 5.0–6.7) vs 6.7% (95% CI 6.5–7.0), p = 0.000].
      In the adolescents' group, the prevalence of nocturnal awakenings caused by rash symptoms on more than one night per week had a negative correlation between altitude (Spearman's Rho = −0.558, p value = 0.031), and a positive correlation with the average annual temperature (Spearman's Rho = 0.604, p value = 0.017) and annual relative humidity (Spearman's Rho = 0.742, p value = 0.002). The most significant associations in children were the presence of sneezing or runny or blocked nose in the past 12 months [(OR 3.13, 95% CI 2.60–3.77), p = 0.000], the use of paracetamol in the first year of life ([OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.15–2.01), p = 0.003] and the use of antibiotics in the first year of life [(OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.08–1.55) p = 0.004]. Moreover, altitude at 100–1000 m above sea level was associated with current eczema symptoms in adolescents (p = 0.001).

      Conclusions

      There has been a significant increase in eczema symptoms in both age groups since ISAAC Phase IIIB study. Additionally, eczema symptoms were associated with temperature, relative humidity, asthma, hay fever symptoms, the use of paracetamol and antibiotics.

      Keywords

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